Sunday, 25 August 2013


25, August 2013
After knowing the Thirukkazhukundram Shiva Temple is my Rasi temple, planned to go to this temple. This is one of  the Devaram Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalam. Since Thiruidaichram ( presently called as Tiruvadisoolam )  is  also a Devaram Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalam nearer to Thirukkazhukkundram, so  I added this  temple in my list during this week end Temples visit on 25-08-2013. For this temple we have to take diversion from Chengalpattu to Thirukkazhukkundram & Thiruporur Koot road.   ThriIdaichram is on the way to Chengalpattu to Thiruporur road from the bus stop ( about 9 KM from Chengalpattu ), we have to walk  a distance of  1  KM from the main road.
When I reached the temple it was 7.30 Hrs and found the Rajagopuram door was opened and the temple doors are found closed. When I walked around the outer prakaram,  heared sound came from inside temple. The Gurukkal told me that doors are kept closed to avoid monkey’s menace.

27 - THIRU IDAICHURAM. Now this place is called as Thiruvadisoolam.
This is the 27th Devaram Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalam in Thondai Nadu. Thiruganasambandar has sung hymns in praise of Lord Shiva of this temple.

Iraivan: Sri Ganapureeswarar, Sri Idaichura Nathar
Iraivi   : Sri Govarthanambigai, Sri Imaya madakkodi.

Some of the important features of this temple are….
  1. Ambal in the form of Cow milked on Iraivan and worshiped.
  2. Gowthama Maharishi and Sanath kumarars worshiped Lord Shiva of this temple.
  3. The temple was built with granite stone and the 5 tier Rajagopuram on south side was built recently
  4. There is no Dwajasthambam, but only Palipeedam and Nandhi mandapam.
  5. Karuvarai is of agazhi  type.
  6. Moolavar is of Syuambu – Maragatha lingam - a precious green stone.
  7. Swamy and Ambal sannadhi vimanam’s were constructed under the Sri Jayenthra saraswathi swamykal’s pon vizha period.
  8. In the outer prakaram sannadhi for Ganapathy, Sri Valli Devasena Subramaniyar, Sri Bramandeswarar and his concert, Navagrahas.
  9. In the inner prakaram moorthangal of Naagars, Naalvar, Ganapathi, Sri Valli Deivanai samedha Sri Subramaniyar, Bairavar and Suryan.
  10. In koshtam Ganapathy, Dhakshinamoorthy, Maha Vishnu in place of Lingothbavar, Brahma and Vishnu Durgai.
  11. Villenthiya velan/ Murugan   on the right side of moolavar keeping the right leg on the mayil vahanam ( a relief  ) looks cute.
  1. Thiruvadi soolam is about 9 KM from Chengal Pattu and 6 KM from Koot road.
  2. All the Govt. and Private buses from Chengal Pattu to Thiruporur are passes through this village.
  1. Gurukkal may be contacted for temple timings, pooja etc. through his mobile number is 9444948937.
Sri Valli Devasena Sri Subramaniyar
 A relief of villenthiya Murugan (  also see a moortham in Thirukkazhukkundram base temple Amman sannadhi entrance )
 East side entrance view
 South side entrance view
 Moolavar gopuram with Vinayagar sannadhi
The banyan tree is swallowing the Palm tree
 A banyan tree  around a palm tree
A recently constructed 5 tier Rajagopuram 

After dharshan I came out of the temple, a devotee suggested me to go to Devi Sri Karumariamman temple and Bairavar temple which are  under construction. Two devotees took me to the Sri Devi Karumaiamman Temple in their car. The car went through an un -finished mud road  for about 2 KM from Shiva Temple. On the way I could not see any human beings. The road passes through the forest and mountains with full of green. ( Thanks for the recent rain) .


The Amman  is unique in nature in sitting posture  with ten hands of which two are in abaya and Vara hastham, to a height of 31 feet on a 20 feet pedestal, totally 51 feet. The Amman is made of single monolithic  granite stone brought from a village Siruthamur, Pattakonavadai Village in semi finished condition weighing nearly 800 tons ( ?) through a 100 wheel trailer. It was a toughest journey to bring through the forest mud road.  The Amman was erected in open to sky at present and super structure with kodi lingam will be build latter. The Temple is being constructed by Sri Thambu Swamy’s 6th generation great great grand son, Sri Madurai Muthu Swamikal MA., BL. Sri Thambu Swamykal is the person who constructed the Thiruverkadu Sri Karumari Amman Temple. It was learnt that Amman came in his dream and explained him where and how the temple to be constructed for her. 

The Amman temple is under Balalayam and poojas are conducted regularly in a separate place and Soolam. Every day annadhanam is being served to the visiting devotees between 12.00 Hrs  to 13.30 Hrs and Pournami pooja is conducted elaborately up to 21.00 hrs  with unchal seva.

Aathi Parameshwari Devi Sri Karumari Amman  Shetharam,
Sri Koil Puram, ,
Thiruvadi soolam,
Chengalpattu 603108.

No 5099
G Block, Second Street,
Anna Nagar West
Chennai 600040.

 Sri Devi Karumari Amman Statue  - about 300 Tons monolithic stone  of 31 feet high on a 20 feet pedestal
Temple under construction 


After Sri Devi Karumari Amman’s dharshan people told me that Sri Bairavar temple under construction is about a KM from there. Walked alone endlessly. The path was stretching like hanuman’s tail. There was nobody crossing me through the forest road. There was a frightening  silence except some birds chirping. At one point I missed the route and went through a wrong route and after crossing 500 meters returned back to the same  junction and waited for a while to get the correct direction to the temple.  Two persons on a motor cycle came and they said they do not have the idea of such a temple. Then after a while a person on a motor cycle guided me the correct direction to the Bairavar temple. I found very difficult to walk under the scorching sun. The sun showed  no  mercy on me.  After walking to a distance of about a KM, at-last I had seen the temple from a distance.  

Some of the important features of this temple are...
  1. The temple is under construction in a round shape facing east. 
  2. Inside it was very calm with a chanting of Sri Bairavaya namha: through a sound system. 
  3. The inside shape is like Siva Lingam and bright lights were installed around the ceiling. 
  4. The Bairavar Moortham is installed at an elevated position at the centre with 12 steps signifying the 12 rasis from Meenam to Mesham. 
  5. In the inner circle Ashta bairavars are installed. They are namely 1, Sri Ashithanga Bairavar, 2. Sri Sanda bairavar, 3. Sri Guru Bairavar, 4. Sri Krothana Bairavar, 5. Sri Pickshadana bairavar, 6. Sri Kabala Bairavar. 7. Sri Unmattha Bairavar  and 8. Sri Samkara Bairavar.
  6. In the outer prakaram sannadhi for Sri Rudhra Vinayagar, Sri Vaishnavi devi, Sri Azhaku Prithyangara  Devi and Sri Valli Deva sena Sri Subramaniyar.

  1. A Town bus is available from Thiruvadi soolam but frequency is limited.
  2. Auto are available from Thiruvadi soolam 

  1. The temple is being constructed by Sri Bairava Siddhantham Swamykal from Nagarkoil.
  2. Temple address is Sri Bairavar temple , Eechangkaranai, Thiruvadi Soolam,  Bairavar Nagar, Chengalpattu 603109.
  3. The Mobile numbers are 9940392913 and 9444460759.

 Sri Bairavar
Sri Bairavar temple under construction 
After finishing Sri Bairavar’s dharshan again walked back lonely to Thiruvadi Soolam bus stop to catch the bus to Chengalpattu to Thirukkazhukkundram koot road.  I exhausted when I reached to the bus stand. It  was 11.30 Hrs when I landed at Thirukkazhukkundram.   Both temples, one on the top of hill ( Malai Koil ) and the other at the base ( Thazha Koil ) are Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalangal.

First I went to Hill Temple. The temple authorities are collecting fees for the entrance to the hill temple too. The steps are neatly paved up to the entrance of the shrine. ( The view of the base temple from the top  is a  panoramic view  )  The front arch  is under construction.   

28 - THIRUKKAZHUKKUNDRAM ( Malai Koil - மலைக் கோவில் )

This is the 28th Devaram and Thiruvasakam  paadal Petra Shiva Sthalam. Naalvar has sung hymns in praise of Lord Shiva of this temple.

Iraivan : Sri Vedhagireeswarar
Iraivi     : Sri Chokka Nayagi.

Some of the salient features of this temple are ….
  1. The hill is about 500 feet from base. Moolavar is suyambu and facing east.
  2. The hill itself as vedham and hence the hill is called as Vedhagiri.
  3. Markandeyar worshiped Lord Shiva of this temple.
  4. In the inner prakaram  moortham for Sri Vinayagar,  Ambal sannadhi and a shiva Lingam.
  5. On the east side entrance Sri Vallabai Vinayagar and Srivalli Devasena Sri Subramaniyar and on the North side entrance  Sri Vinayagar and Sri Murugan.
  6. Natarajar saba is in the artha mandapam.
  7. On the return path There is a Pallava period Kudaivarai ( Rock cut temple ). This rock cut Shiva Temple was chiseled during AD 610 to 640 by Mahendravaraman I.  This is now under the control of Archeological Survey of India.
  8. Ambal is in standing posture facing north.
  9. There are no moorthams in koshtam.
  10. There is no nandhi and only Palipeedam with Dwajasthambam.
  1. Government and Private Buses are available from Chengalpattu, Chennai, Thiruporur, Kalpakkam
  1. Temple timings are : 08.30 Hrs and 17.00 Hrs to 19.00 Hrs and
  1. The devasthanam landline number is  044 – 27447139.
 Entrace to Malai Temple 
Moolavar Gopuram of Malai temple 

 Kudaivarai Koil - A rock cut cave temple chiseled during King Kulothungan I - period AD 610 - 640. This site is under the control of ASI ( Archaeological survey of India  )
 Rock cut temple another view
Kudaivarai Koil - Rock cut temple Shiva 
King and his wife worshiping Lord Shiva  with a sword kept near the king - See the legs posture - Relief  on the steps near the Kudaivarai koil ( Rock cut temple )


After the malai temple dharshan proceeded to base temple. The temple is under renovation and preparing for the kumbabhishekam on 15th  September 2013. It is a huge temple  with Ambal temple built separately. The temple is with full of dust due to cleaning and painting.

Iraivan : Sri Bakthavachaleswarar
Iraivi    : Sri Thiribura Sundari 

Some of the important details are …. 
  1. All the 5 raja gopurams ( two on the east side ) are of 7 tiers.
  2. Conch has appeared from Sangu theertham to do abhishekam to Sri Markandeyar, from then every 12 years conch is appearing from the thirukkulam.
  3. There is a 16 Pillar mandapam with lot of relief on the pillars and old paintings on the ceiling.
  4. Ashta Puja Durgai is on the wall of the present office complex on the east side entrance. The relief looks very beautiful.
  5. Vilenthiya Velan /Murugan in front of Ambal sannadhi moortham is very beautiful.
  6. Moolavar vimanam is of Gajabirushtam type.
  7. There are lot of Tamil inscriptions on the moolavar and Ambal karuvarai wall. ( It is a rare sight to see the old tamil inscriptions on the ambal temple also ). These inscriptions belongs to the 7th century Pallava, Chozha and Rastra kooda  period.
  8. Agora Veerabathrarar is a large moortham and looks beautiful.
  9. Sri Chakram is  on  Ambal and abhishekam is  done on Adipuram, Panguni Uthiram and Navarathiri Navami day.
  1. The office land line is 044 – 27447139
  2. Kannan Gurukkal Mobile number is 9790736702.
A  bird's eye view of the base temple, view from Malai temple
 Second level Rajagopuram on the east side
 16 Pillar mandapam
 Old painting at the centre of the 16 pillar mandapam ceiling
 Ambal's dhabas relief on the 16 pillar mandapam
Relief of shiva dancing on the 16 pillar mandapam
 Gajabirushta Vimanam
 View of the temple complte complex with sthala viruksham

 Temple complex view
Temple complex view
 Beautufully sculptured pillars
 Villantheya Murugan  - a moortham on the right side entrance of Ambal temple
 Agora Veerabathrarar
 ASHTA PUJA DURGAI  ( Relief on the office Complex wall - must see - Some of the temple people do not know where it is )

After dharshan  walked to see the sangu theertha Kulam with neerazhi mandapam at the center. There is a Shiva temple on the banks of Sangu theertha Kulam. Iraivan is Sri Theertha karaieeswarar and his concert is Sri Birambarambigai. The theertha kulam has little water due to the recent rain.
 Sangu Theertham ( conch ) with malai temple on the back
Sri Brambarambigai samedha Theerthakarai Eeswarar temple 

Then I went to a Vaippu sthalam Sri Rudhra Kodi  and the people calls it  as Rudhrangkoil, which is very near ( 1 KM )  to the sangu theertam.  Iraivan is Sri Rudhra Kodeeswarar and Ambal is  Sri Abirama sundari. The temple was closed when I went there around 13.00 Hrs. The thirukkulam was not maintained properly. 


Temple view with temple pond

Had my lunch in the hotel and returned to Chennai around 16.00 Hrs through EMU from Chengalpattu.


Sunday, 18 August 2013


18, August 2013
Almost all the ancient temples will have a connection with some Siddhars or Munivars  either in the construction of that temple  or reconstruction of  the same at a latter state.  Both the temples at Thirukkachur  ( The Shiva Temple  one on the Hill top  and the other at the base of the Hill )  are associated with Sri Kuzhandhaivel Swamykal, a Siddhar  and his disciple  Sri Veerasamy Swamykal. I tried my best to present the details collected at the end of this post. I had the opportunity of visiting the above siddhar madam during this week end temples visit.

I did not planned  for  any temples visit  out side the City this week. When my wife asked me, “ are you going to any temples this Sunday or you will be at home.“ ( She might have expected me to do some help for her on Sunday ). This made my mind to plan for this wonderful trip to THIRUKKACHUR on 18-08-2013, to have the dharshan of Lord Shiva and Siddhar Peedams. Let us see the details of the temples  first and the Siddhars associated to the temples after.

The archakar came around 08.45 Hrs when,  I  reached the temple.  The main shrine was opened and had the dharshan of Sri  Maruntheesar.  

This is the 26th Devaram Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalam in Thondai Naadu. Sundarar has sung hymns in praise of Lord Shiva of this temple.   


Iraivan : Sri Maruntheesar , Sri Owshathagreeswarar
Iraivi    : Sri Irulneeki Ambal , Sri Anthakaara Nivarani.

Some of the important details of this temple are…..
  1. Aswini Devars worshiped Lord Shiva   and Ambal for the medicinal herb “ Palai Athipalai “  to cure their deceases. Lord Shiva gave this hill as  “The hill earth itself a medicine .“
  2. When Sundarar came to this temple after girivalam, Iraivan served food after getting food from the villagers as picksha ( Yasakam ).
  3. The temple was constructed during First Kulothungan and Chozhars period. There was no Kalvettukal  found.
  4. Two kala Pooja is being performed  with the effort of Sri Kuzhandhai swamykal and Sri Veerasamy swamykal. The construction of Rajagopuram will be after the arrival of new disciple to Sri Kuzhandhaivel  Swamikal.   
  5. Relief ( pudai sirpangal ) of  Dwarabalakars, Ambal, Sundarar, Appar,  Pattinathar, Vallalar,  Vinayagar, Dhandapani are in the mandapam pillars.
  6. The temple is facing west and the entrance to the main shrine is from south.
  7. Palipeedam , New Dwajasthambam and Nandhi mandapam  are on the west  and Iraivan is visible through salaram.
  8. In the outer prakaram sannadhi for Gana Ganapathy,  Naagars, Chathurmuga Sandeeswarar ( Brahma mugam – a special in this temple only ), Bairavar, Suryan and Navagrahas.
  9. Ambal Sri Irulneeki Amman is in a separate sannadhi  in standing posture and facing west.
  10. In koshtam Durgai, Brahma, Sri Mahavishnu in place of Lingothbavar, Dhakshinamoorthy and Ganapathy.
  11. Ganapathy and Subramaniyar are in front of moolavar karuvarai.
  12. Theertha well is the owshatha well with steps constructed beautifully.
  13. Brahma  Worshiped Lord Shiva of this temple hence Sandikeswarar is in the form of Brahma Sandikeswarar with Chathur mugam.

  1. The temple is on the bus route from Chennai to Sriperumbudur through Singaperumal Kovil.
  2. On the train route get down at Singaperumal Kovil and share autos are available from Railway gate.

  1. The land line and mobile numbers are : 044 2746 4325 and 93811 86389.

 Palipedam, Dwajasthambam with Nandhiyamperuman mandapam are on the west side
 View of the temple from west side  ( moolavar can be seen through the salaram )
 Moolavar vimanam
 Steps constructed for the theertha -owshatha - well
 Ambal temple vimanam with bell tower
 Ambal temple
 Front Maha mandapam with relief of dwarabalakars on the pillars
 Chathurmuga Sandeswarar and  Bairavar
 Dwarabalakar and  a relief of Agasthiyar with ambal 

 Front Mottai Rajagopuram 

When I came out to go for the base temple, one of the devotee guided me to the   Sri Kuzhandhaivel Swamykal Siddhar Madam in front of Maruntheeswar sannadhi. The details are written below separately.  

After Dharshan  of Siddhars proceeded to Thazha Koil or Aala Koil - the base temple. On the way happened to see the name board of Iranthiteeswarar Temple. This temple is also a shiva temple where Iraivan gave food to Sundarar after getting food from the villagers as picksha. The sudhai relief is on the top.

 Iranthitteesar sannadhi
Another view of Iranthiteesar Sannadhi 


Iraivan: Sri Virunthiteeswarar, Sri Virunthittavarathar, Sri Kachabesar,                Sri Thiyagaraja swamykal.
Iraivi   : Sri Anjanakshi Amman.

Some of the important features of this temple are….
  1. Sri Narayanan lost his strength by helping to get amirtham to Devars. So he worshiped lord Shiva of this temple to get back his strength. Hence Iraivan is called as Kachabesar. 
  2. The temple is facing east with a thirukulam on the right and Sri Vinayagar temple is in front. In between there is a 16 pillar mandapam.
  3. There is no rajagopuram and a base was constructed long ago, looks mottai gopuram.  
  4. Palaipeedam, Dwajasthambam with Nandhimandapam are at the entrance  of the mottai rajagopuram.
  5. In the outer prakaram sannadhi for Maha Ganapathy, Sri Valli Devasena Subramaniyar,  Virunthiteesar, Sundarar and Bairavar.
  6. Sri Thiyagesar is in front Nakshathira mandapam and facing east. 
  7. The entrance to the Moolavar sannadhi is on the south from Nakshathira mandapam. 
  8. Moortham of Naalvar, Ganaganapathy, Choleeswarar, Sri Kalatheeswarar, Sri Maheswarai, Sri Maarkasakaeeswarar, Naagalingam, Naagarajan, Ramanatheeswarar, Kashi Viswanathar, Sri Valli Devasena Subramaniyar are in the inner prakaram.
  9. In koshtam Vinayagar, Dhakshinamoorthy, Mahavishnu ( in place of Lingothbavar ), Brahma and Durgai.
  10. Moolavar is suyampu and short.
  11. A separate sannadhi for Ambal  and facing south in standing posture.
  12. Urchava vahanagal are kept  in mahamandapam.
  13. The annual festival is being celebrated during Chithirai month. On the fifth day Iraivan’s Chin mudra vaibavam is a special one. The Urchavam is for the Thiyagarajar only.
  14. Lot of Old Tamil inscriptions are found around Karuvarai walls, which belongs to First Kulothungan's and chozhar's period. 

  1. SP Koil or Singaperumal Koil is on the bus and Train route from Chennai to Chengal Pattu after Maraimalai Nagar.  Get down at Singaperumal Koil.
  2. From Singaperumal koil rly way station The Village Thirukkachur is about 2.5 KM.
  3. Thirukkachur Malai Koil is about a KM from Base temple Ala Koil.
  4. Route no 82c passes through the main road from Chengalpattu to Sriperumbudur. From the bus stop the Village is about a KM.
  5. Auto facility is available from Singaperumal Koil bus stop.

  1. Archakars  Murali and Shanmugam  may be contacted for more details and Pooja on their land line number 044 27463514 and the office number is     044 – 27464325.
  2. Alternatively the mobile number can also be contacted 93811 86389.

  1. The temple is open between 09.00 Hrs to 11.00 Hrs and evening 18.00 Hrs to 19.00 Hrs. 

 Virunthiteesar sannadhi
 Sundarar Sannadhi
 Gajabirushta Vimanam
 Temple view from entrance
 Palipeedam, Dwajasthambam, Nandhiamperuman with bell tower view
 A closer look of - Palipeedam, Dwajasthambam, Nandhiamperuman with bell tower view
 Temple entrance view - Nakshathira Mandapam 
 16 Pillar mandapam
Mottai Rajagopuram 
Lord Shiva who gave food to Sundarar also gave me too. The annathanam was organized through Velachery Thirukoil Uzhavarapani mandram lead by Mr Adalarasan. ( Mobile Number 9445121080, 9884892575 and 9841155511 ).  This is being conducted every Sunday between 10.00 Hrs to 13.00 Hrs.


This madam is in front of Maruntheeswarar Temple on the hill. The jeeva Samadhi of Guru and his disciple  are in the madam. Sri Kuzhandhaivel swamykal was born in Padappai,  a small village near Chennai in weavers family. He got married to Malai Kozhunthu and had three children after his father’s demise at his young age. When he came to know that his brother was a thief, who  had stolen the gold covered rudraksham of his friend and tried to sell. So Swamykal  got dejected and gone to Kashi. He has done seva To Lord by making garland in the Kumaraguruthasa madam ( Bamban swamykal has got the kaashayam in this madam only ). The mut’s Gurunathar accepted Sri Kuzhandhaivel swamykal as his disciple.

One day Lord Shiva Maruntheesar came in his dream and asked him to come to this temple and take care of the temple.  When he came to Thirukkachur annual festival was in progress. After the festival he introduced himself to the villagers and came to the Malai Koil and stayed in the temple it self and continued his thirupani. When he tried to came out of the temple his both eyesight were  gone and it came back, once he entered back in to the temple. He had done lot of siddhus for reconstruction of the temple, converting iron to gold, etc. He had done Kumbhabhishekam for Lord Shiva shrine, Ambal shrine, Vinayagar & Navagrahas. 

During construction of the rajagopuram Swamykal had a conflict with the Dhrmakartha Sivasankaran. The Dharmakartha wants to construct in his name and the money also to be deposited in to his account, for which Swamykal refused to do so.  In that conflict the dharmakartha tried to kill Swamykal through koolies. In the first attempt Swamyji escaped through his siddhu of Navakanda yogam ( to show the body in nine pieces ). After he attained mukthi / jeeva Samadhi and the Dharmakartha’s koolies cut his body thinking that  he is alive. The koolies  also died with the same wounds that they had done to Swamykal.  Swamykal used to say do duty only to Lord Shiva and not to him.


After Sri Kuzhandhaivel Swamykal attained Jeeva Samadhi Sri Veerasamy Swamykal had taken over the temple’s thirupani. He was born in a small village near Chengalpattu. He  become the disciple of Sri Kuzhandhaivel Swamykal when his ancestors property was divided among his relatives with difference of opinions.  During his period the vimanam’s for moolavar and Ambal was constructed. Swamykal used to be in mounam most of the time. He used call every body as Shiva. He was also an instrumental for the temples thirupani at Dharmaraja temple at Korrukkupettai, Throwpathi amman temple at Saidapet, before he came to Thirukkachur. He has not done any siddhus like his guru Sri Kuzhandhaivel swamykal.  Swamykal attained samathi on 10-04-1999. The maruntheesar temple’s 1 Kala Pooja and the present  2 Kaala pooja are the personal effort of Sri Veerasamy Swamykal

Girivalam has become famous during his period on every Karthikai month’s 3rd Somavaram  since 1980’s in addition to monthly Girivalam and the same is being continued even now also. Annathanam is being offered to the devotees during that day.  It was believed that all the prayers will be succeeded if a devotee undertakes Girivalam and worshiped Lord Shiva Maruntheesar.

Liberal donations are requested for the reconstruction of Rajagopuram, Sri Subramaniyar Temple, Theerthakulam renovation, construction of Mandapam for the urchava vahanams, Thirutheir thirupani, Girivala route renovations etc.,
For details please contact

Arul migu Maruntheesar Thiyagarajar Thirukoil Iraipani Saba
Kuzhandhaivel Swamy and Veeraswamy Madam
No 74, Malai Koil Street, Thirukkachur

Mobile number 9445693021
 Sri Kuzhandhaivel swamykal jeeva samadhi - Siddhar Madam. 
Sri Veerasamy Swamykal jeeva samadhi 

--- OM SHIVAYA NAMA : ----